Marriage As An Institution And Its Types.

May 16, 2019   •  400 views

Marriage is one of the universal social institution. To the institution of family the marriage institution connects closely. Oflate, marriage and family are complementary to each other. According to Robert H. Lowie “Marriage is a relatively permanent bond between permissible mates”.

Characteristics of Marriage :-

1. Universality

2. Relationship between man and woman

3. Marriage bond is enduring

4. Marriage requires social approval

5. Marriage is related with some civil or religious ceremony

6. Marriage creates mutual obligations

Forms of Marriage :-

Polygyny, Polyandry, Monogamy and Group Marriage are the main form of marriage. But it may differ from culture to culture.

1. Polygyny :-

A form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time is called Polygyny. It is more popular than Polyandry but not as universal as monogamy. Polygyny is in practice among the Eskimo tribes, crow Indians etc. However, it is permitted in Muslim Community.

• Types :-

a) Sororal Polygyny :- It is a type of marriage in which the wives are invariably sisters. It is often called “Sororate”. The Latin word 'Soror' stands for 'Sister'.

b) Non – Sororal Polygyny :- It is a type of marriage in which the wives are not related as sisters.

2. Polyandry :-

Polyandry is a form of marriage in which one woman with several men. It is much less common than Polygyny. It is practice in India among the tribes such as the Kota, the Toda etc.

• Types :-

a) Fraternal Polyandry :- When several brothers share the same wife, the practice can be called Alelphic.

b) Non – Fraternal Polyandry :- In this type, the husband’s need not have any close relationship prior to the marriage.

3. Monogamy :-

A form of marriage in which one man marries one woman is called Monogamy. We can consider this as the most widespread form of marriage found among the primitives as well as the civilised people. It is in practice among the tribes such as Sandals, Khe Khasis, the Andaman Islands etc.

4. Group Marriage :-

The marriage of two or more women with two or more men is called as Group Marriage. But this type of arrangement is practically rare. In this type of marriage the husbands are common husbands and wives are common wives. Children are regarded as the children of entire group. They may call the men of such a group their fathers and all the woman their mothers. Some of tribals in Australia, India, Tibet and Ceylon are believed to have practiced group marriage.