We collected scientific data from various sources on what should (and should not) be done in order to live longer (and healthier, of course).
1. Go more
The best recipe for longevity - training. Doctors increasingly prescribe fitness instead of medicine. Exercises improve the condition of the brain, heart, skin, improve mood and metabolism. Even a small dose of 10 minutes of energetic walking helps. But, starting with it, gradually extend to 15. Then to 20. Slowly but surely increase the load.
2. Gradually increase speed
The more energetic walking, the better for health. A study by the University of Pittsburgh, which studied older people over 65, showed that the higher the walking speed, the longer life. Of course, this will not suit everyone, but it makes sense to gradually increase the intensity.
3. Build and maintain muscle.
With age, we lose the muscle strength and mass that we need to maintain health and active longevity. Atrophy leads to an increased risk of falls and fractures, cardiovascular diseases and an increase in mortality for all causes. To prevent age-related loss of muscle and bone mass (which starts at around 35 years old), experts recommend at least 150 minutes a week aerobic exercise of moderate intensity, as well as regular workouts with weights and stretching.
“A hip fracture is common among the elderly and can lead to death,” says doctor. However, there is a way for everyone to strengthen bones: jumping. The study, published in the American Journal of Health Promotion, found that women who jumped on a stable surface 40 times a day (two sets of 20 repetitions at different times, 20 repetitions with rest intervals between jumps of 30 seconds) strengthened bone density.
And who did not jump - lost bone mass. “In addition to the muscle load, jumping, presumably, generates an electrical impulse that stimulates the bones, strengthening them,”.
5. Train not only the body, but also the brain - games
A large-scale study, in which about 2,800 older people were observed for 10 years, compared the effects of games that require ingenuity (simple cognitive tasks are performed as quickly as possible) or memory / analysis. The participants who trained the speed of information processing, 33% less likely to develop dementia and they were 50% less likely to get into traffic accidents.
6. Eat more vegetables and fruits of different colors (and fewer calories)
Proper nutrition - the guarantee of health. Consume every day at least 5 servings (about a fist) of fruits and vegetables of various colors, which contain various phytonutrients.
Add vegetables and fruits to lean sources of protein and healthy fats, trying to avoid processed foods.
7. Eat fish
Scientific evidence of the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids abound - they reduce inflammation, renew the skin, improve the blood lipid profile, prevent heart disease, reduce the risk of joint injuries and brain damage.
Although controversy continues about the best source, Dr. Anil Garg recommends taking care of adequate intake of two forms: DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is found in wild fish, for example, in salmon and mackerel, and ALA (alpha lipoic acid) in plant sources, for example, in flax seeds and walnuts.
8. Get rid of excess weight.
It is also important not to overeat - overweight causes various metabolic disorders, not to mention the root cause of a whole fan of diseases - cardiovascular, diabetes, digestion, musculoskeletal system and many others. Of course, all this shortens your life.
Scientists generally tend to conclude that one cannot be overweight and still be healthy.
To get rid of excess weight - eat with a small calorie deficit.
9. Eat frozen vegetables, fruits, berries - when not season
You can eat fully and in those times of the year when there is no season for fresh fruit. British scientists have found that fresh fruit begins to lose nutrients after three days in the refrigerator, and fresh frozen stored nutrients longer. One study even showed that frozen blueberries had more vitamin C than fresh.
10. Appreciate ripe vegetables and fruits.
Not that the unripe fruit will poison to death, but in the mature it is more useful for prolonging life. For example, green bananas have less fiber and more tannins that cause constipation. In mature pears and blackberries more antioxidants. And the red color of ripe watermelon indicates a greater content of lycopene.
11. Reduce sugar intake
A large amount of sugar in the diet increases blood sugar levels and LDL, lowers HDL, which triples the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The American Heart Association recommends a maximum of 6 teaspoons (25 grams) of sugar per day for women and no more than 9 (36 grams) for men.
12. Take Vitamin D (but don't go over it!)
Vitamin D has many beneficial effects (including life extension), but excessive amounts of it are harmful, as shown by a 2015 Danish study. Scientists from the University of Copenhagen found that the optimal level of vitamin D in the blood - from 50 nanomoles per liter, but not more than 100 nmol / l.
13. Drink green tea
If you do not like coffee, then green tea has powerful antioxidants that prevent diabetes and heart disease. A large-scale Japanese study covering 40,000 people showed that five or more cups of green tea per day reduced mortality among men and by 23% among women by 12%.
14. Drink coffee
It not only helps to wake up, but also reduces the risk of stroke, diabetes and some types of cancer. A 2015 study by Harvard scientists and published in Circulation, states that "drinking 3-5 cups of coffee a day has a 15% lower risk of premature death compared to those who do not drink coffee."
15. Add whole grains
The average American consumes only one serving of whole grain foods per day, for example, one toast at breakfast. But, as a 2016 Harvard University study showed, three or more servings reduce the overall mortality rate by 20%. So add more whole grains to your food: oats, brown rice, quinoa, farro, whole grain bread.
16. Add spices, especially pepper and turmeric.
In a study of 2016, food addictions analyzed more than 16,000 men and women over 23 years and noticed that chili lovers died 13% less often.
Spices like turmeric, ginger and cayenne pepper have anti-inflammatory properties and strengthen the immune system. A study published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, for example, found that turmeric in treating knee osteoarthritis is comparable in effectiveness to ibuprofen. Other studies have noted that turmeric can slow the growth of cancer cells and prevent atherosclerosis.
17. Drink whole dairy products.
Forget about skimmed milk and yogurt: a 2016 study from Circulation found that people who consume the most fatty dairy products have a 50% lower risk of diabetes (which on average shortens their life by 8-10 years).
18. Eat vegetables
The study, which analyzed the lives of 73 thousand people over 6 years, found that vegetarians have a 12% lower mortality rate. The 2016 study, published in JAMA Internal Medicine, recorded the lowest mortality rate among sand vegetarians (who sometimes consumed fish), followed by vegans (which excluded animal products in general) and lacto-ovo vegetarians (who consumed milk and eggs).
However, there are other scientific data that veganism (non-vegetarianism) is more harmful. See more in the article "Does prolonging the rejection of meat."
19. Eat like in Greece
The Mediterranean diet (vegetables, fruits, nuts, olive oil and fish) is one of the most beneficial to health and prolong life. A study by Harvard scientists, published in the British Medical Journal in 2014, found that people on this diet have longer telomeres (end sections of chromosomes), and this prevents aging. They also noticed that even a periodic transition to such a diet benefits health.
20. Eat nuts
A European study of people aged 55-69 found that daily consumption of 10 grams of nuts (8 almond kernels or 6 cashews) reduces the risk of death from all causes by 23%.
An earlier study in America revealed that a handful of nuts at least five times a week reduces the risk of death from heart disease by 29%, from respiratory diseases - by 24%, from cancer - by 11%.
Peanut butter, by the way, does not bring such benefits.
21. Do not overeat
If you want to live up to 100 years, then do not overeat - advises Dan Butnner, the famous researcher of longevity. For example, he found that Okinawan long-livers stop eating, feeling 80 percent full.
In a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health, they also noticed that limiting the number of calories consumed lowers blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and improves insulin sensitivity.
22. Drink Less
If you drink more than expected (one serving of alcohol per day for women and two for men), then life is shortened.
Here, observation by researchers at Cornell University will help a little: if you pour red wine in a white glass (narrower), you will drink 12% less than from a glass for red.
23. Practice short-term fasting.
Recent research conducted by scientists from the Institute for the Study of Longevity of the University of Southern California, found a link between controlled calorie restriction and strengthening the immune system, which fights cell damage from age-related diseases and cancer.
Researchers even suggested such a diet: a five-day “fast”, when a person consumes only 700 calories per day (50% from fat, 35% from carbohydrates and 15% from protein). Such a post should be carried out only a limited number of times a year to get all the health benefits.
24. Take Coenzyme Q10
Antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is necessary for the proper functioning of cells, but over the years its level decreases. Since several studies have found that CoQ10 helps people with cardiovascular disorders, many experts recommend taking it as a supplement.
For example, Dr. Sarah Gottfried (author of the book Younger: A Breakthrough Program for Reset Your Genes, Reverse Aging, and Turn Back the Clock 10 Years) advises a dose of 100 to 200 mg daily.
25. Do not lean on painkillers
According to the findings of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for 2014, regular use of drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen (including over-the-counter brands like Advil, Motrin, Aleve) can increase the risk of heart attack by 10%. And potent prescription drugs can increase this risk by 20-50% after just a few weeks of intake.
26. Get enough sleep
If you regularly sleep for less than 6 hours, the risk of heart attack and stroke almost doubles (according to a review of 15 studies published in the European Heart Journal). Another study, conducted over a period of 25 years, showed that those who do not sleep well die 12% more often than those who sleep 6 to 8 hours.
27. Have sex more often.
A study by Duke University, which observed 252 people for 25 years, noticed a link between frequent sex and longevity in men.
28. Live married
Marriage is good for health - and increases longevity. In the famous cardiological study of the inhabitants of Framingham (which still lasts since 1948), they found that the risk of death for married men is 46% lower than that of bachelors.
A study by New York University in 2014 showed that married men and women 5% less likely to develop cardiovascular diseases.
29. Save umbilical blood
If a baby is born to your family soon, consider saving umbilical blood. It is a source of stem cells that can be used to upgrade the blood and immune system to counteract diseases. It can be used not only by the child, but also by other family members with the same DNA. At present, the development of drugs from umbilical blood is being conducted to overcome previously incurable diseases.
30. Do not ignore vacation.
Going for vacation This is not a joke: one study showed that men who refuse annual leave are 32% more likely to die from a heart attack.
A long-term cardiological study, conducted in Framingham, showed that women who rested only once in 6 years were 8 times more likely to suffer from coronary vascular disease and heart attacks than women who disciplined rested twice a year.
Today, we have many tools available to combat the negative effects of stress, but the oldest method — meditation — also improves brain function. Researchers at the Harvard School of regular meditators have a thickening of the cerebral cortex in areas that are associated with attention and emotional integration.
The work of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in 2015 showed a greater amount of brain gray matter in meditators, which improves memory and cognitive functions.
32. Keep track of urine color (hydration)
If you drink enough water (the urine remains light), then you prolong your life, reducing the risk of bladder or colon cancer and supporting kidney function.
Bonus - slimming assistance: a study by the University of Illinois found that people who drank more water consumed an average of 68–205 kcal less per day.
33. Do not eat at night
A Harvard study found that late dinner increases the risk of heart disease by 55% in men 45-82 years old.
Money is not happiness, but it helps to live longer. In a 2016 Stanford study, people were compared in terms of income and found that the richest live nearly 15 years longer than the poor. Scientists attribute this gap to a more healthy lifestyle for wealthy people who, for example, smoke less often and have less excess weight.
35. Feel the admiration
For example, visit your favorite museum, the Grand Canyon, or listen to the Ninth Symphony - a University of California study says it stimulates the body's defense systems. The sense of beauty and admiration normalize the level of cytokines, so they not only bring us pleasure, but also improve health and prolong life.
36. Get a quad friend
A number of studies show that having a pet relieves stress, lowers blood pressure and even increases the chances of surviving a heart attack. The American Heart Association (American Heart Association) with heart problems especially recommends starting a dog - their owners are more physically active and suffer less from stress.
37. Find a vocation
A 2014 study, published in Lancet, says that having a loved one reduces the risk of death by 30%. Do anything - raise children, help your neighbors. If you like it, you can expect an average of 7 additional years of life.
38. Keep track of food quality.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), about 3,000 Americans die each year from food poisoning. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is also intimidating: you can die to death with the most healthy food: sprouts, berries, raw tuna.
To reduce the risk by using hygiene. Wash your hands with soap, keep your kitchen, utensils and appliances clean, store raw and cooked food separately, always store perishable food in the fridge and cook at the right temperatures to kill harmful bacteria.
39. Live in the mountains
Foci of long-livers are often found in highlands. Scientists believe that rarefied air (containing less oxygen) leads to adaptations that strengthen the heart.
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