In the present scenario, management and distribution of water have become centralized. Living creatures of the universe are made of five basic elements, Viz, Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Sky. Obviously, water is one of the main resources, without which, it is not possible for us to sustain our lives in this world. A country's level of water use is one of the key measures of its level of the economic development of the country. Developing countries like India use 90 percent of its water for agriculture purpose, just 7 percent for the industry use 3 percent for domestic use.
Despite having great regard for the water, we seem to have failed to address this sector seriously, human beings could save and conserve the water for the water usage and its sources, probably because of, it's availability in abundance. But this irresponsible attitude resulted in deterioration of its availability in abundance. Now, the situation has been arising each and every single drop of water is matters. However, "better late than never", we have not realized the seriousness of this issue and initiated efforts to overcome these problems. System of collection of rainwater and conserving it for the future needs has been traditionally been practiced in our country India. The Government of Tamil Nadu has passed an order (GO) to implement the rainwater harvesting system is compulsory in the state. This scheme was highly appreciated by the Government of India in the parliament house. Nowadays, many states are following this scheme and ultimately they found the benefits.
The term rainwater harvesting is being frequently used in these days; however, the concept of rainwater harvesting is not new for our country India. Water harvesting techniques had been evolved and developed centuries ago. Groundwater resource gets naturally recharged through percolation. But due to indiscriminate developed and rapid urbanization, exposed surface for soil has been reduced drastically with resultant reduction in percolation of rainwater, thereby depleting groundwater resource. Rainwater harvesting is the process of augmentation the natural filtration of the rainwater into the underground formation by some artificial methods. "Conscious collection and storage of rainwater to cater to the demands of the water, for drinking, domestic purpose and irrigation are termed as "Rainwater Harvesting".
Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting:
To provide water for domestic purposes
To increase water resources
To reduce water scarcity
To arrest groundwater decline and augment groundwater table
To beneficiate water quality in aquifers
To conserve surface water run-off losses
To reduce soil erosion and run-off during monsoon
To inculcate a culture of water conservation