Paper: "An ontology based approach to traffic management in urban areas"
Abstract : Transportation plays an important role in social and economic development. The number of vehicles running on the road is increasing day by day therefore traffic is increasing leading to increased amount of pollution, waste of time and road accidents. This literature proposes a traffic management approach based upon ontologies. Here, they have used VANET( Vehicular ADhoc Network) as a medium to transmit information and retrieve messages to ensure proper traffic management.
Problems confronted by the traffic sector due to increase in the number of vehicles -
2. Increase in traffic accidents
3. Pollution in the environment
4. Also affect quality of life of citizens
Intelligent transport system is a probable solution to all these problem.
Concept behind Intelligent Transport System - It promotes communication between vehicles and vehicles and infrastructure using roadside access point. Wireless technology is commonly used to achieve this goal. A driver has fast and reliable access to data stored in the road cloud that has many practical applications.VANET is based on MANET(Mobile Adhoc Networks). Here, each vehicle on the road is equipped with a wireless equipment designed for the purpose of communication between the vehicles and the other vehicles or the infrastructure.
Related Works - 1. Author has used hierarchial fuzzy logic to address this issue of vehicle-traffic control. Genetic algorithm is deployed which takes 0.55 seconds in a biprocessor computer however the computation overhead can be reduced by using parallel processing and multiprocessors.
(TIBERIU S. LETIA, MIHAI HULEA, FLORIN DINGA. “Optimization ofUrbanVehicleTrafficUsingGeneticFuzzyLogicControl”. Proceedings of the2nd WSEAS InternationalConference on URBAN PLANNING and TRANSPORTATION, 2009, pp. 171-176.)
2. In a given paper they have utilized the real-time traffic data to control the stop start wait timings of the traffic lights.
These ATCS(Adaptive Traffic Control System) tries to optimize stop time and delays.
Ontology in Intelligent Traffic System -
Definition of ontology by Tom Grub (1993) mostpopularsince1993untilnowisthe definition of Tom Gruber  who has said: “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization.”
An ontology is a set of terms and concepts that have certain relationship, ontologies also specify the infromation related to these terms conditions and relationship. Significant element required to construct an ontology is language.
Languages for the implementation of the ontology -
VANETcanprovideinformationfasterandmore pertinentlyinrealtime,buttheinterpretationofthis informationbythedriverandhisreflexesarenotalways precise. For this we propose an ontology that will ensure the best presentation of collected information
Solution in the paper
An ontology is proposed using VANET to facilitate scommunication between infrastructure and the vehicle and also between them
Three phases used -
1. Learning Phase - we collect infromation related to each object present in the road.
2. Knowledge acquisition phase - Acquiring neccessary info for driver
3. Knowledge representation phase -
Urban Traffic Management Ontology
Here we have four subclasses under the main class Thing(superclass) -
OWL - used to describe and facilitate knowledge
Protege - used to design the ontology
Concept of inheritance is used
Each class has certain properties under it
Paper - "Architecture for intelligent transportation system based in a general traffic ontology"
Abstract - In this paper it has proposed an approach which provides roadside assistance to drivers gathering assistance and taking decisions it could provide information like weather information traffic status other vehicles in the surrounding etc.
To bring this approach into action the paper has proposed ontology.The system thus enhances the interoperability amongst various systems in a traffic environment
Introduction - The Intelligent Transportation System has ushered new era of safety and interoperability between software agents hence promoting communincation between various entities present in the traffic system, it also enhances safety of the driver.
"Ontologiesprovidea commonvocabulary inagivendomainandallowdefining, with different levels of formality, the meaning of terms and the relationshipsbetweenthem.Ontologiesfacilitatesthe design of exhaustive and rigorous conceptual schemas to allow communicationandinformationexchangebetweendifferent systems and institutions."
"SérgioGorender,ÍcaroSilva;“ANONTOLOGYFORAFAULT TOLERANT TRAFFIC INFORMATION SYSTEM”, 22nd International Congressof MechanicalEngineering (COBEM 2013),November 3-7, 2013, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazi"- In this ontology has been constructed for traffic highway management system.
In the workin (A.J. Bermejo, J. Villadangos, J. J. Astrain, A. Cordoba. Ontology Based RoadTrafficManagement.IntelligentDistributedComputingVI,G. Fortino et al. eds., SCI 446, pp. 103-108. )an ontologyfor traffic managementis proposed, adding certain concepts of traffic to generalsensor ontology A3ME in  (Herzog,A.;Jacobi,D.;Buchmann,A.A3ME-AnAgent-Based Middleware Approach for Mixed Mode Environments. In Proceeding of SecondInternationalConferenceonMobileUbiquitousComputing, Systems,ServicesandTechnologies(UBICOMM2008),Valencia, Spain, 29 September-4 October 2008; pp. 191-196.).