Buddha is the creator of Buddhism. He was born in 563 BC on Vaishakhi poornima Day at Lumbini in Nepal. His mother died after 7 days of his birth. So he was brought up by his stepmother Gautami. When he was 16, he was married to Yashodhara and had a son named Rahula.
Buddha left his palace at the age of 29 with his charioteer named channa and his favorite horse, kanthaka in search of truth. It is also known as Mahabhinishkramana or The Great Renunciation and he wandered for 6 years.
At the age of 35, he attained Nirvana or Enlightenment at Gaya in Magadha(Bihar) under the Pipal tree.
After Nirvana he attained the knowledge. He delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is known as 'Dharmachakrapravartan' or ' The turning off the wheel of Law'. Lord Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar in 483BC at the age of 80.
There are four Noble truths in Buddhism.
1. Life is full of misery
2. Desire is the cause of misery
3. Killing desires would kill sorrows
4. Desire can be killed by following eight told path
After the death of Buddha, his pupils or monks gathered the council 4 times. Buddha and the effect of these events had their effect on Buddhism.
First council was held in Rajgriha in 483 BC. They divided the teachings of Buddha into two pitakas- Vinaya pitaka and Sutta pitaka.
In Second council at Vaishali in 383 BC followers divided into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas under Sabakami.
In third council, third part of tripitaka was coded in pali language.
In fourth council in 72 AD under Vasumitra, Buddhism divided into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.
Buddhist scriptures in pali language are referred to as Tripitakas i.e Threefold Basket.
Vinaya pitaka - Rules of disciplines in Buddhist monasteries
Sutta pitaka - Largest and contains collection of Buddha's sermons
Abhidhamma pitaka - Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion
'Jataka stories' describe the stories related to the birth of Buddha.